Independent Research and Policy Advocacy

Do UPI In-App Grievance Redress Mechanisms work for constrained users?

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Digital financial services in India are growing at a rapid pace – most visible in the case of Unified Payments Interface (UPI) system. However, in the absence of effective grievance redress mechanisms (GRMs), these services leave customers without necessary recourse and become difficult to trust.

In this interim report, we document our observations about the user interface of In-App GRMs in UPI applications (UPI Apps). Our observations are based on our review of the customer redress journey on these GRMs – mainly in terms of the GRM’s accessibility and usability – from the lens of a low-income, digital immigrant customer. Broadly, we note –

  1. Some apps don’t allow users to raise complaints from an In-App GRM.
  2. When available, In-App GRMs are often not placed prominently on the screen.
  3. Most UPI apps give users information that can help them resolve some concerns on their own, but very few do so in vernacular language.
  4. The In-App GRMs only capture payment-related complaints. Either they leave out or make it difficult to make non-payment-related complaints.
  5. There is inadequate support in vernacular languages.
  6. Complaint-tracking mechanisms on the In-App GRM are difficult to use

We also present some indicative measures that providers could try, such as (i) improving alignment with regulations, (ii) conducting usability testing exercises with constrained users, (iii) building users’ awareness, and (iv) using grievance data as feedback to improve their services.

To read full report click here.

Cite this blog:


Narayan, A., & Prasad, S. (2023). Do UPI In-App Grievance Redress Mechanisms work for constrained users? Retrieved from Dvara Research.


Narayan, Aishwarya and Srikara Prasad. “Do UPI In-App Grievance Redress Mechanisms work for constrained users?” 2023. Dvara Research.


Narayan, Aishwarya, and Srikara Prasad. 2023. “Do UPI In-App Grievance Redress Mechanisms work for constrained users?” Dvara Research.

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